Генно-модифицированные младенцы

В США начинается рассмотрение биологических процедур, которые в случае их успешности позволят создавать генно-модифицированных людей, сообщает в статье для The New York Times Марси Дарновски, исполнительный директор организации Center for Genetics and Society. Заседания в консультативном комитете американского Управления по контролю продуктов питания и Лекарств (F.D.A.) состоятся сегодня и завтра.

«Это опасный шаг», — предостерегает Дарновски. По ее словам, методы «изменят все клетки в телах детей, рожденных в результате их применения, и эти изменения будут передаваться следующим поколениям».

Речь идет о методах, которые F.D.A. именует «технологиями манипуляций митохондриями». Из яйцеклетки или эмбриона женщины с наследственной болезнью митохондрий извлекается ядерный материал и пересаживается в здоровую яйцеклетку или эмбрион донора (из которых удалены их собственные ядерные материалы). Так что потомство будет нести гены трех человек: отца, матери и донора, говорится в статье.

Разработчики этих методов говорят, что они позволят больным женщинам рожать здоровых детей, с которыми они в генетическом родстве. Некоторые предлагают использовать их в случаях бесплодия, обусловленного возрастом. «Цели достойные, но методы крайне проблематичные в плане медицинских рисков и последствий для общества», — комментирует автор. Что если у детей или у последующих поколений проявятся осложнения? И насколько далеко мы зайдем в попытках генной инженерии людей?

Многие ученые и политики призывают применять инструменты генной инженерии человека осторожно и вдумчиво — чтобы лечить, но не для того, чтобы манипулировать наследственными чертами будущих детей. «Генетическая модификация сперматозоидов, яйцеклеток и эмбрионов на ранней стадии развития должна быть строго запрещена. Иначе мы рискуем скатиться в эксперименты на людях и высокотехнологическую евгенику», — пишет автор.

Однако есть признаки, что сопротивление наследуемым генным модификациям, которое десятки стран закрепили в законодательстве, ослабевает. Идею манипуляций с митохондриями рассматривают не только американские, но и британские ведомства.

Автор замечает: у женщин с митохондриальными болезнями есть менее опасные для ребенка способы обзавестись детьми (усыновление, ЭКО с использованием донорских яйцеклеток).

«Если мы можем что-то сделать, это еще не значит, что мы должны это делать», — заключает Марси Дарновски.


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